TIME BETWEEN OLD TESTAMENT AND NEW TESTAMENT 400 years
PERSIAN
536-336 BC
God tired of Jew's idoltry.
Jews held captive under two world powers.
SYNAGOGUE WORSHIP began in captivity, before they went to the temple. But
the temple was destroyed. So they began house churches--synagogues. It was
kept up after they returned from exile.
586 BC Jews exiled to Babylon
539 BC Babylon conquered by Persia
.520 BC Jews return from exile
420 BC Malachi - last book in OT
, writes about the captivity times.
  400 years
go by.....
NO "inspired books" are written, between Malachi till John the Baptist. No
prophets during this time.
DIVERSE NON-INSPIRED WRITINGS
HISTORICAL BOOKS
  Josephus- a pharisee, a historian, wrote about Jesus, wrote about politics and
social aspects.
Maccabees - history of Jewish uprising
COMMENTARIES
  TORAH (PENTATEUCH a Greek word; first 5 books of the Bible, Pent = 5;
Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Deut, Levit)
TALMUD/MISHNAH (ONLY commentaries, Rabbinic Teachings) written by
Jewish Rabbi's ABOUT the Torah. They added many more "restrictions" than
what was actually in the Bible OT. They began to impose all of these "fake" laws
onto the people. The Mishnah are yet more commentaries written by
scribes/students about the Talmud. The commentaries were based on the law,
and they began to base their religious thoughts on the Talmud, instead of what
the prophets said, and who the Messiah was to be. Jesus was trying to explain
how this was not correct. There were so many contradicting idea's, they lost
sight of who the Messiah was to be, and the "end times".
APOCRYPHA (hidden)
  written by writers during this time, not mentioned in OT or NT. Many versions of
Catholic Bible includes these books. These books are NON inspired
PSEUDIPIGRAPHA (hidden)
  Books with "names" of Bible charactors, written long after their deaths. Written
in apocolyptic style; using metaphors etc.
    Commentaries, Apocrypha, Pseudipigrapha books were written due to the
influence of all these writers influenced the thinking of the people, Jesus
denounced these authors and the type of these types of literature.
GREEK PERIOD
333-167 BC
Alexander the Great died, then his kingdom divided between his 4 Generals.
ISREAL was fought over by regional powers, the north and the south.
  320-198 BC
Egypt was under control of Greece, but EGYPT had local control over  
Palestine.
  198-167 BC
SYRIA controlled
Antiacus Ephiphanes: closed the temple, sacrificed a pig at temple which made
it unclean, forbade circumcision, wanted to destroy and demoralize the Jews
and their religion.
    Everyone wanted Isreal as it was IN BETWEEN their countries, and better to
fight the war there, than in their own country.
    LXX = SEPTUAGINT (70 scribes) translated the OT into Greek. Greek culture
was predominate during this time. The Jew's began to forget how to speak
Hebrew.
MACCABEES
167-63 BC
Revolt against Syrian control. The Maccabbe's led the revolt, also against the
Greek influences as well.
NEW POWERS AROSE IN ISREAL
Pharisees - Scribes, the separated ones, saviors of the Law against pagan
Greek influences, return to the Bible, and go just WITH the scriptures. They
began to be the teachers to spiritually teach and lead the people when the
Sadducees gave that up.
Sadducees - Aristocratic upper class priests, very political, and used their
political powers. They took over the secular leadership. The priests were to
lead the people because God said so.The Sadducees abandoned the religious
role when they became more political.
Essenes - dessert "monks", saw Jerusalem as a place of corruption. They lived
in communes. They recorded copies of the old HEBREW and Aramaic writings o
the Bible, sealed them in earthen jaws and hid them in caves near the Dead
Sea. They were afraid of some catastrophy happening again, so they carefully
copied and hid them to protect them. 1947 a boy discovered them, and they
are identified as THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS.
Zealots - Poltical activist and anarchists that wanted to continue the revolution.
Barabas was part of this group.
Herodians - Poltical party sympathetic to the Herods.
ROMAN PERIOD
63 BC - NT
PERIOD
Destroyed Syria, dominated Palestine and sent "governors" there. They sold
rights to collect taxes.
Publicans - purchased rights to collect taxes. MATTHEW was a Publican
Herod - (see Cleopatra for better grip on the many Herod's). A politcal ruler,
called a King, called King of the Jews, Roman appointed.
Pontius Pilate - military governor, guarantying force to collect taxes and
prevent rebellion.
CALENDAR
  TIME- Roman Calendar in Jesus time, determined the years. The founding of
the city of Rome was the year ONE. Jesus came at 753 Roman time.
FEASTS - celebrated during Jewish calendar.
EVANGELISM IN ROMAN EMPIRE
14 BC - 93 AD
Pax Romana - Peace in Roman empire for over 100 years. Apostles had
freedom of movement.
Road System, to move troops & to defend.
Universal language (Greek) communication between cultures, literature.
Romans used Latin as the language for their law.
PALESTINE IN NT TIMES
  Children taught to read in synogogues.
Poverty
CLASS DIVISIONS:
Aristocracy - The priests, only accepted the first 5 books ONLY of the Bible,
didn't believe in all the prophets. Very liberal, accepted Greek "thinking"
Pharisees - Teachers and Rabbi's, believed in ressurection from the dead.
Common People -
Publicans - sympathetic to Rome
Sinners -
Slaves - CRUCIFICTION only  for slaves. Considered very humiliating. Anyone
having a social standing ABOVE a slave
could not be crucified. 30-35% of
population were slaves.
SOCIAL PROBLEMS
  Slavery 35% of population
Divorce
Prostitution - cult prostitution; sexual activity considered to be part of your
religion. Temple prostitutes. Women of the village would take turns, so men
would attend synogogue.
Infanticide - especially amongst Gentiles. Boys were "prized".
Child Abuse - Orphans raised to be thieves or prostitutes.
     
     
INTERTESTAMENTERY
PERIOD